Acne is an inflammation that occurs at the site of the hair follicles. Acne is a logical continuation of the development of acne on the face, when bacteria are added to the latter, i.e. infection occurs.
Acne can be of two main types: in the form of papules, and in the form of pustules..
- Papules (Fig. 1-3) -
papule is an inflammatory formation in the form of a red tubercle on the skin, inside of which there is no cavity with pus. Papules can be independent formations and, persisting up to 2 months, can then disappear without a trace. However, papules most often turn into pustules.
- Pustules (Fig.4-6) -
The pustule is a classic vulgar pimple that rises above the surface of the skin, inside which there is a bubble with pus.
Acne on the face: photo
If we talk about the face, then most often acne appears on the cheeks. Pimples on the chin and pimples on the forehead - occur less frequently. Some people have acne in the hair on their heads.
Acne is an element of the skin disease called Acne. It is this term, speaking of acne, often used by dermatologists and cosmetologists. In addition to acne, acne also includes:
→ nodular and cystic forms of acne
How acne is formed -
Acne is the next step in the development of acne. Almost all people have acne: they look like white bumps on the skin surface or black heads located in the skin pores (Fig. 7-8). Acne consists of sebum and squamous skin cells. Acne is located near the surface of the skin, and in the depth of the skin pores are the hair follicles and the sebaceous glands associated with them (Figure 10a, b).
Acne performs the role of plugs that prevent the release of sebum to the surface of the skin, through its pores. As a result of the appearance of traffic jams, a closed space is formed inside the hair follicle, where sebum accumulates and the bacteria that have got there start to multiply actively, causing inflammation and the formation of pus. In this way, acne turns into acne.
Acne on the face: the causes of
So, why do acne appear on the face, and because of what, in the skin pores, acne is formed first and then acne occurs in their place? What does acne on the face mean to the body and what processes are they associated with? The appearance of acne with two main processes:
- Strengthening the function of the sebaceous glands around the hair follicles -
As a result, the amount of sebum increases, which is formed by the sebaceous glands and is displayed on the skin surface. This usually occurs during puberty amid hormonal changes - increased production of androgens (both in young people and girls).
- The increase in the number of desquamated cells in the lumen of the follicle -
inside the hair follicles are covered with a layer of epithelial cells. Gradually, the cells die and are replaced by new ones. However, with keratosis of the epithelium (i.e., if the process of keratinization of epithelial cells is disturbed), there is a sharp increase in the number of exfoliated epithelial cells in the lumen of the hair follicle.
Increased production of sebum and the number of exfoliated cells leads to the formation of congestion (acne). At the same time, the sebaceous glands still secrete sebum, but which can no longer reach the surface of the skin (Figure 10b). Therefore, sebum accumulates in the lumen of the hair follicle, which stretches its walls. Sebum and confined space conditions are excellent breeding conditions for bacteria. As a result, in the space bounded by the walls of the hair follicle, either a papule or a pustule develops.
What factors aggravate acne -
Strengthening hormone production in adolescents and keratosis of the epithelium of hair follicles are not the only factors that can affect the development of acne. Causes of acne on the face can be covered in detail. Acne development contributes to:
- The use of fatty cosmetics -
Some cosmetics and skin care products, like sebum, secreted by the sebaceous glands, can clog skin pores. This will occur in cases where such funds are made on a fat basis. Any cosmetics for you should only be water-based.
- Contraceptive pills and hormonal changes -
some birth control pills promote acne. This is typical for drugs containing pure progesterone. Also, in the premenstrual period, hormonal changes occur, and therefore you regularly can see worsening of your acne 1 time per month.
- Medical preparations -
such drugs as prednisone, steroid hormones, lithium preparations, anticonvulsants, iodides, bromides can stimulate the appearance of acne.
- Active sweating -
many people often sweat. This may be due to increased physical exertion, stress, simply due to physiology or working conditions. Keep in mind that excessive sweating also contributes to the appearance of acne. Therefore, these people need to take care of their skin more carefully.
Facial Acne Treatments -
How to remove acne from the face quickly and without complications? The most difficult thing here is to choose the right drug or combination of drugs, choose a treatment regimen. Professional treatment of acne on the face can only be a dermatologist (sometimes cosmetologist). Unfortunately, in most cases, people are late to consult a specialist, and this leads to complications - the appearance of superficial scars and pigment spots formed during the healing of deep acne and cysts.
Acne treatment will not be the same in the following situations -
- when you have acne and acne at the same time,
- when there is only acne,
- with cystic acne (i.e., when there are large pus cavities).
How to quickly get rid of acne: a scheme drawn up by a dermatologist
Below we look at all types of drugs that are listed in this scheme.
1. Benzoyl peroxide -
This is the best remedy for acne. You can say - the gold standard of therapy. Benzoyl peroxide is a bactericidal component that kills bacteria, which lead to the formation of pus inside the hair follicles. In addition, benzoyl peroxide has a slight exfoliating effect, which will also help release pores.
Benzoyl peroxide may be in the composition of gels, lotions or creams, with a concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 10%. Optimally, the first month to use a concentration of 2.5%, and subsequently use 5% of the funds. For dry skin, forms in the form of creams are more suitable, for oily ones - in the form of gels. Lotions are suitable for any skin.
Mono-component preparations of benzoyl peroxide -
very high quality products manufactured in the USA: "Persa-gel 10", Proactive, Desquam, Proderm cream, in addition there are cool products under the brands - Neutrogena and Mary Kay. French production - Eclaran-cream, Baziron-gel. As well as Benzacne-gel (Poland), "Benzoyl Peroxide Gel" (India), Oxygel (India).
Benzoyl Peroxide Combinations -
There are drugs where benzoyl peroxide is combined with an antibiotic or retinoid. Examples of combined drugs:
- "Duac-gel" (England) - contains benzoyl peroxide and antibiotic Clindamycin,
- "Epido" (France), "Effesel" (France) - benzoyl peroxide together with the retinoid Adapalen.
They are used in the following situations -
1) If you only have acne (without acne), and you have taken a course of treatment with pure benzoyl peroxide, but the effect was not enough. In this case, you need the drug "benzoyl peroxide + antibiotic."
2) If you have a mixed form of the disease (acne + acne) or cystic form of acne - you need the drug "benzoyl peroxide + retinoid."
Application scheme -
The preparation is applied 1-2 times a day only on the skin areas prone to inflammation. Before each treatment, clean the skin with mild cleansers only (for example, Dove or Neutrogena). The effect of the drug will be noticeable after 5-6 days. But in order. To achieve lasting improvement, you will need to undergo a full 6-week course of treatment.
Possible side effects -
Keep in mind that itching, burning sensation, dryness, tension, redness or peeling of the skin after application are possible. But usually these effects are not expressed sharply., And at the end of the application - immediately pass. If you use the drug in the active solar period - be sure to use sunscreen, because benzoyl peroxide makes skin more sensitive to sunlight.
2. Retinoids -
Preparations of the Retinoid group are prescribed when there is only acne, with the mixed form "acne + acne", as well as with the cystic form of acne. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A. They help remove acne and pores, and also prevent their occurrence. Retinoids also have an exfoliating effect, removing dead skin cells.
Examples of monocomponent retinoids -
- Retin-A (Fig.15), Lokatsid, Ayrol - contain Tretinoin,
- Differin (fig. 16), Klenzit, Deriva - contain Adapalen,
- Tazret-gel, Zorak - contain Tazaroten.
Examples of combined retinoids -
prescribed for acne + acne and cystic acne. In these forms of the disease, such drugs will be much more effective than monocomponent drugs. Examples of drugs:
- "Epido" (Figure 17) - contains adapalene + benzoyl peroxide,
- "Deriva-S", "Klenzit-S" - contain adapalen with the antibiotic clindamycin,
- "Isotrexin" - contains a retinoid Isotretinoin + antibiotic erythromycin.
How to treat acne on the face of retinoids -
a drug with a retinoid should be used 1 time a day before bedtime. The full course of treatment will be at least 3 months, however, a noticeable result will be visible after 6-7 weeks. To get used to the skin and not much irritated - start the use of the drug 3 times a week. After 1-2 weeks, switch to daily use. Before applying the retinoid, you need to wash your face with a mild detergent. Release forms of retinoids in the form of lotions - will be most effective, in the form of creams - the least.
3. Antibacterial drugs -
How to cure acne on the face with antibiotics? In most cases, antibiotics for acne are prescribed only locally (as part of gels and creams). The use of antibiotics in the form of ointments is strictly prohibited, since fatty components of ointments will clog pores and aggravate acne.
- Antibacterial creams and gels -
for the treatment of acne they are made on the basis of clindamycin or erythromycin. Gels containing pure antibiotic may be prescribed for acne (when there are no blackheads and without the cystic form of acne). Examples of monocomponent gels with the antibiotic clindamycin:
→ Dalatsin (ris.18), Clindovit, Klindatop, etc.
There are also combined gels, where the antibiotic is combined with retinoids, benzoyl peroxide or zinc:
→ Duac-gel (clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide),
→ Isotrexin-gel (erythromycin + retinoid Isotretinoin),
→ Deriva-S, Klenzit-C (clindamycin + retinoid Adapalen),
→ drug Zener (erythromycin + zinc).
The combined antibiotic gel with a retinoid is optimally used in the mixed form of "acne + acne", as well as in the cystic form of acne. Gels containing an antibiotic with benzoyl peroxide are best used for acne (without acne), if the initial therapy with mono-component benzoyl peroxide preparations has proved to be ineffective.
- Oral antibiotics tablets -
antibiotics in pills are prescribed immediately (as a basic therapy) only in the cystic form of acne. With the forms of "acne + acne" and only with acne - oral antibiotics are prescribed only when the use of basic drugs has not been successful.
4. Azelaic acid -
Azelaic acid is usually used as an alternative to benzoyl peroxide, since has less irritating effect. This acid has both an antibacterial effect and the effect of exfoliating the superficial dead skin cells. Examples of drugs: Skinoren (Germany), Azogel (Russia), Acne-derma (Poland).
Application features -
gels with azelaic acid are applied 2 times a day. The minimum course of treatment will be 1 month (this is the time for which you will see the proper effect), the standard course of application is 3 months. Unlike benzoyl peroxide, this drug can be used with active sun and without the use of sunscreen, because Azelaic acid does not increase the sensitivity of the skin to the sun.
In cystic forms of acne, azelaic acid has the effect of preventing the appearance of post-inflammatory skin pigmentation.
4. Isotretinoin -
Acne on the face how to get rid of the most severe forms of this disease? For this there are systemic retinoids, for example, Isotretinoin. Is taken orally in the form of capsules. Analogues of Isotretinoin are drugs Aknekutan (Fig. 20), Aknetin and Roaccutane. This group of drugs is used exclusively for the treatment of cystic acne. The drug has an impressive effectiveness, but it has a lot of side effects.
Application features -
The course of treatment lasts about 6 months. Blood tests should be conducted regularly to prevent possible negative effects of the drug. Keep in mind that isotretinoin should not be taken by pregnant women. Against the background of the use of the drug, 100% contraception must be observed, but already after 1 month after the end of the application, there will be no threat to the fetus if you decide to become pregnant.
5. Hormonal contraceptives and spironolankton -
Oral contraceptives can be used as a supplement to the main treatment in adolescent girls and women. First of all, this method of treatment is recommended for healthy women who also need contraception. Also, hormonal contraceptives are prescribed and those women who have traditional methods of treating acne do not give a good result.
How oral contraceptives work -
Acne is caused by excess sebum production and by the fact that it clogs the pores in the skin, forming a plug. Androgens (a group of male sex hormones that include testosterone) stimulate the sebaceous glands of the skin, producing sebum. Female ovaries and adrenal glands usually produce low androgen levels. However, exceeding the minimum level of androgens in the blood leads to an excess of sebum production.
Taking birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone reduces the amount of androgens in the body. This leads to a decrease in sebum production and a decrease in acne. Dermatologists have been using birth control pills to treat acne in women for decades, but not all birth control pills can be used to treat acne.
Types of hormonal contraceptives for treating acne -
The FDA (the most prestigious pharmaceutical quality assurance organization in the USA) recommends using drugs containing a combination of estrogen and progestin for treating acne. Moreover, these drugs are available with different doses of progestin and estrogen, which allows you to individually choose the drug for each woman.
You also need to consider the fact that the progestin in the composition of the tablets can be human and synthetic. Artificial (synthetic progestin form) is less preferred, because has an increased risk of blood clots. FDA approved drugs for treating acne are "Estrostep" (Fig.23), "Ortho Tri-Cyclen" (Fig.24) and to a lesser extent "Yaz".
When to avoid birth control pills -
- the presence of heart disease, hypertension, thrombophlebitis,
- in violation of blood clotting,
- oncological diseases (breast, uterus, liver cancer),
- liver disease, diabetes,
- frequent headaches, migraine,
- if you are a smoker over 35,
- if you are currently pregnant or breastfeeding,
- with obesity.
It is also worth knowing that if you are currently using pills containing only progesterone for contraception purposes, you may not be surprised at why there are acne on your face. Pure progesterone stimulates the development of acne.
Androgen Blockers -
Because of what there are acne in girls in adolescence - due to the increase in the level of androgens in the blood, which stimulate the production of sebum from the sebaceous glands. You can reduce the production of sebum by using the drug Spironolactone, which blocks the androgen receptors.
This drug may be considered for use in women and adolescent girls with resistant to traditional acne treatment, when even antibiotics do not help. Of the possible side effects: breast tenderness, menstrual disorders, increased levels of potassium in the blood.
We hope that our article on the topic: How to quickly get rid of acne - turned out to be useful to you!
Author: editors of the portal.