Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural structural component of the skin that holds water molecules in it. The human body contains a total of about 15 grams of this acid, one third of which is decomposed and synthesized daily. The aging process is accompanied by a decrease in the level of hyaluronic acid, and by the age of 45 its content decreases by about 50%.
More than 50% of hyaluronic acid contained in the body is located in the skin, and the skin consists of water by 70%. Based on this, it becomes clear that if with age the body loses up to half of hyaluronic acid, then the skin's moisture content decreases at least 2 times.
As a lack of hyaluronic acid leads to aging of the skin -
Virtually all of the hyaluronic acid of the skin is in its dermal layer (Fig. 2) - exactly where the fibers of collagen and elastin are located, which are responsible for the skin's elasticity. The loss of moisture (dehydration) by this layer of skin leads to the following effects:
- Slow Collagen Degeneration -
Reducing the amount of hyaluronic acid leads to a decrease in the water content in the dermis, which leads to a weak hydration of collagen and elastin fibers with water. Under these conditions, there is a slow degeneration of collagen fibers with a gradual decrease in its amount. In addition, the rest of the collagen loses the proper degree of plasticity (the ability to compress / unclamp). And this affects the elasticity of the skin.
- Skin thickness reduction -
dehydration of the dermal layer of the skin leads to a decrease in its thickness, respectively, the skin becomes thinner and less elastic. Thin skin is more prone to the early appearance of wrinkles.
- Decreased activity of fibroblasts and keratinocytes -
fibroblasts are responsible for the synthesis of collagen and elastin. Under conditions of lack of hyaluronic acid, their activity decreases, which affects the production of collagen. The activity of keratinocytes, on which the thickness of the epidermal layer of the skin depends, also decreases. Reducing the thickness of the epidermis leads to a decrease in the protective properties of the skin and to greater evaporation of water from its surface.
Hyaluronic acid for the face: reviews of cosmetologists ...
Thus, the additional intake of hyaluronic acid (in terms of reducing its content in the dermis) - contributes to the fact that the dermis is saturated with moisture, and the collagen remains sufficiently hydrated water. Plus increases the activity of fibroblasts and keratinocytes, stimulates angiogenesis, cell regeneration, metabolic processes. All this keeps the skin well hydrated, elastic and, accordingly, prevents the development of wrinkles.
Why not all outdoor products with hyaluronic acid work -
Hyaluronic acid belongs to the class of polysaccharides, and more specifically to glycosaminoglycans. It consists of repeating fragments (Fig. 3), which are commonly called disaccharide units. Normally, one molecule of hyaluronic acid contains up to 25 thousand of such duplicate fragments. As a result, the molecule is a ribbon (Fig. 4), which is folded into a loose tangled ball.
Hyaluronic acid molecules have a large size and molecular weight, and therefore normally they do not penetrate the skin - deeper than the gap between the dead cells of the epidermis. Therefore, some manufacturers in their creams and serums use low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, which has been artificially reduced to a size that allows it to penetrate the skin well.
Therefore, the size of HA molecules in skin care products is very important!The size (mass) of hyaluronic acid molecules is measured in daltons (Yes). A standard hyaluronic acid molecule has a mass of up to 25,000,000 Da. In some sources you can find the notation for mass in the form of kDa (kilo Dalton). For example, 25,000,000 Dalton = 25,000 kDa).
1. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid -
Hyaluronic acid molecules with a chain size less than 130.000 Dalton are considered low molecular weight. Such molecules are much easier to penetrate the impassable skin barrier. Penetrating into the dermal layer of the skin, such molecules absorb water from the inside (which penetrates the dermis through the walls of blood vessels). Tying and holding it - they saturate the dermis with moisture.
But even low molecular weight GC is heterogeneous. Chains of different sizes have completely different effects. Therefore, the best manufacturers use low molecular weight HA not in the same size, but in different ...
- Chains weighing from 400 to 10,000 Dalton -
they contribute most to angiogenesis, i.e. the appearance in the dermis of a multitude of microvessels. This leads to a better blood supply to the skin, and thus to a better saturation of it with oxygen, nutrients, activation of metabolic processes in the skin.
- Chains weighing from 50.000 to 130.000 Dalton -
such a size of molecules leads to a good saturation of the derma with moisture, but this chain size especially strongly stimulates cell proliferation and migration, increases the activity of fibroblasts + production of new collagen. The activity of keratinocytes also increases, which contributes to an increase in the thickness of the epidermis and an increase in its hydrophobic properties (that is, the thicker the epidermis, the less moisture will evaporate from the skin surface).
Important: Studies have shown that HA chains weighing up to 1 million Daltons can pass through the skin. However, the same studies have shown that chains of HAs with a mass of from 500,000 to 1,000,000 Daltons (they already belong to high molecular weight) partially cause opposite effects. Although they saturate the dermis with moisture, they also inhibit the proliferation of fibroblasts, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis (24stoma.ru).
2. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid -
Hyaluronic acid molecules with chains larger than 130.000 Dalton are considered high molecular. But this does not mean that they do not work. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid forms on the skin surface a thin gel-like "polymer" film, which begins to very quickly absorb moisture from the air.
The formation of a gel-like film leads to the following effects -
- increase the water content in the epidermal layer of the skin,
- there is an additional barrier to the evaporation of moisture from the skin surface,
- polymer film allows biologically active components that make up the cosmetic product, longer and denser contact with the skin, which increases their absorption.
Important: the effectiveness and duration of such a gel-like film will be the higher, the greater the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid used (recall that its maximum mass = 25.000.000 Dalton).
CONCLUSIONS for the choice of skin products -
Thus, HA molecules of different mass work in completely different ways. This may influence the choice of skin care products, depending on what you expect from the use of such products.
- Products with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid -
will work from the inside, penetrating into the dermal layer of the skin, increasing its water content, which leads to an increase in the degree of hydration of collagen and elastin and an increase in their elasticity. They also activate the function of fibroblasts and keratinocytes, increase collagen production, increase metabolic processes in the skin, stimulate angiogenesis.
Studies have shown that agents with HA molecules from 50,000 to 130,000 Daltons - contributed better than others to the return of skin elasticity. Just keep in mind that the molecules of the Ledger are destroyed in the body over time: from less than a day to 2 days. Therefore, these tools need to be applied constantly, otherwise you roll back to the original state of the skin. Moreover, the smaller the size of HA molecules, the faster they are destroyed by macrophages.
- Medications with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid -
the size of the HA molecules should be at least 1.000.000 Dalton in such devices (and this is the worst option). At best, the molecules should have a maximum size, i.e. approaching 25,000,000 Dalton. Keep in mind that such products can, on the contrary, dry up your skin if the surrounding air is not sufficiently moisturized, i.e. dry. In this case, the gel-like film will tend to absorb water even from the surface layer of the skin.
These funds allow you to quickly moisturize and improve the condition of the surface layer of the skin (epidermis). You should not count on an increase in moisture in the dermis and on an increase in skin elasticity. The effectiveness of such products will be much higher if, in addition to HA, they contain ceramides (unsaturated fatty acids), which also prevent the evaporation of moisture from the skin surface.
Hyaluronic acid in cosmetology -
What is attractive hyaluronic acid in cosmetology, and what is its benefit? In addition to external means, there are injectable forms of administration, which can be directed either to a general improvement of the skin condition, or to smoothing wrinkles.
1. Deep moisturizing of the face and neck -
The method of skin rejuvenation with injections of hyaluronic acid is called biorevitalization (from words - renewal, revitalization). A solution of hyaluronic acid is injected intracutaneously using a variety of microinjections with a special automatic injector or with a syringe (Fig.5-7). Solutions for biorevitalization may also contain all sorts of vitamins and amino acids.
Hyaluronic acid: reviews on biorevitalization techniques ...
We already wrote about the results of clinical studies of skin biorevitalization. To date, this technique is quite controversial. An increase in collagen and elastin production after injections of hyaluronic acid, if it occurred (only in one study), it would still be only at the level of statistical error. But in general, patients noted that the skin after injection looked more rested for a period of about a month.
Original photos from biorevitalization research taken before and after (do you see the difference?)
What explains the slight increase in collagen levels -
It must be said that this method is carried out using a series of numerous micro-injections, which lead to numerous minor injuries to the skin with a needle. The skin instantly reacts to any damage by activating the regenerative mechanisms, including collagen production, activation of angiogenesis and blood supply. In our opinion, the improvement of the skin condition with this technique is due to skin punctures, and not due to the contents of the syringe.
By the way, this is proved by the fact that in one of the studies (read study) uneven increase of collagen was found, and it was in the places of skin punctures with a syringe needle. Considering that the hyaluronic acid solution is distributed in the tissues upon administration, it is rather strange that the increase occurred only at the points of needle insertion into the skin.
By the way, see how the state of the skin improves when exposed to a fractional laser, when darsonvalization is applied (the discharges leave foci of micronecrosis in the skin that stimulate skin regeneration). Or as after applying badyi, which injures the skin with microstubes - after 2 days the skin tone becomes much healthier and even. All this proves our point of view.
Undoubtedly, the contents of the syringe to some extent affects the metabolic processes, but this effect is extremely small and short. In addition to injections, there are also hyaluronic acid tablets, creams with sodium hyaluronate or hyaluronic acid (read about them below).
2. Smoothing wrinkles, giving volume to the lips, cheekbones -
Hyaluronic acid in cosmetology is also used as a basis for fillers (dermal fillers), which are designed to correct wrinkles, or to increase the volume of the lips or cheekbones. Hyaluronic acid fillers are a gel that is injected subcutaneously with a syringe. The gel has a tendency not to dissolve for a long time (up to 1 year), and this results in a lifting effect.
The principle of wrinkle smoothing with hyaluronic acid fillers -
The effect of the use of fillers is visible immediately after the procedure. But keep in mind that smoothing wrinkles or increasing the volume of the cheekbones or lips will be temporary, because gel has the ability to slowly dissolve in the body. On average, the effect persists for a period of 6-12 months (depending on the brand of the selected filler).
But there are long-acting fillers, the effect of which can last from 2 to 10 years. They are no longer made from hyaluronic acid, but on the basis of suspended hydroxyapatite calcium, poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl methacrylate microspheres.
Hyaluronic Acid Preparations -
Today, cosmetology uses forms of hyaluronic acid in the form of a solution and gel for intradermal or subcutaneous administration, in the form of tablets (capsules), and also in the form of numerous topical preparations in the form of creams, ointments, gels and serums. So, more about each form ...
1. SOLGAR hyaluronic acid tablets: reviews
In the Russian segment of the Internet, Solgar is gaining great popularity - hyaluronic acid tablets. The manufacturer claims that taking this drug improves the condition of the joints, penetrating into the inter-articular fluid, and also improves the condition of the skin, moisturizes it, fights wrinkles and so on.
The fact is that hyaluronic acid molecules are too large, and therefore when taken in tablets, they are not able to be absorbed in the intestine and enter the blood. Accordingly, hyaluronic acid does not penetrate into the joints or into the skin ... The effect can be generally only from the injection form, or from the topical form (creams, serums), but not from the tablets.
However, some reviews insist that hyaluronic acid in capsules / tablets is able to be well absorbed in the body, and improve its overall condition. This is a blatant lie, left by paid commentators in forums and thematic blogs, not supported, trite, neither by the laws of biochemistry, nor by the laws of human physiology.
Solgar hyaluronic acid: reviews of experts ...
Of course, you will see only positive reviews on the page of the seller’s website. The quality of these reviews, everything is clear, given that hyaluronic acid is not absorbed in the intestine at all. However, hyaluronic acid also contains a large dose of vitamin C (as much as 167% of the daily dose in one capsule), which is just absorbed in the intestine.
Vitamin C is a good antioxidant and immunomodulator, and of course it can improve the overall condition of the body. It is clear that if a stimulating effect occurs, it is only because of the presence of this vitamin. For your information, Solgar hyaluronic acid price will be from 1,200 to 2,300 rubles (for 30 capsules). Is it a lot for just one vitamin C?
With all the desire (spending even a year), you will not find a single clinical study that would be conducted about the effectiveness of oral hyaluronic acid in tablets or capsules. Of course, it is absolutely harmless, but taking it in pills is absolutely pointless.
2. Hyaluronic Acid Injection -
There are two types of hyaluronic acid injections for skin rejuvenation. In the first case, a solution of hyaluronic acid is used, which is rapidly absorbed after intracutaneous administration. In the second case, the hyaluronic acid gel is used, which is not absorbed for a long time in the tissues. These two forms of application have completely different properties and effects ...
- The use of hyaluronic acid solutions -
injections of hyaluronic acid in this case can improve the appearance of the skin, give it a rested radiant appearance by deeply moisturizing the skin (at least so say the manufacturers). But these injections will not allow you to reduce the depth of wrinkles.
This skin rejuvenation is called mesotherapy or skin biorevitalization. In fact, they are synonymous. The term "mesotherapy" should be understood simply as a method of administering medicinal substances intracutaneously. But the second term was used in cases where mesotherapy is carried out on the face. To do this, came up with a beautiful term "biorevitalization".
The most popular preparations of HA for deep hydration of the skin of the face -
Hyaluronic acid shots: reviews
many people consider biorevitalization of the skin with hyaluronic acid injections a hoax. Most independent clinical studies have shown that virtually no stimulation of the synthesis of collagen and elastin of the skin occurs (an increase in their content varies at the level of statistical error). However, some patients note that the skin after such injections looks more rested.
- Use of hyaluronic acid gels (fillers) -
Such gels are excellent for coping with deep wrinkles and folds, reducing their depth. This method is often called face contour, because Intradermally injected gel of hyaluronic acid allows not only to smooth wrinkles, but also helps to give additional volume to the cheekbones, chin, will allow to increase the lips.
Самые популярные филлеры на основе гиалуроновой кислоты:
→ "Restyline®" (рис.19).
Эффект от применения филлеров мгновенный и длится около года. Гиалуроновая кислота инъекции - отзывы всех пациентов подтверждают эффективность и безопасность этого метода омоложения кожи. Минусом может быть только стоимость процедуры, где цена рассчитывается в зависимости от объема введенного геля. Филлеры являются самым популярным средством от морщин в США и Европе, наравне с инъекциями Botox®which perfectly allows to cope with mimic wrinkles.
Hyaluronic acid injections: reviews, price
Hyaluronic acid injection - the price is calculated based on the amount of the drug in ml, which is introduced into the tissue. This also applies to hyaluronic acid solutions for biorevitalization, and fillers for the correction of wrinkles (hyaluronic acid in the form of a gel).
|Cost of the biorevitalization procedure||Price, rub|
| Restylane Vital - 1.0 ml|
Restylane Vital (in the injector) - 2.0 ml
| Restylane Vital Light - 1.0 ml|
Restylane Vital Light (in the injector) - 2.0 ml
|Juvederm Hydrate - 1.0 ml||11000|
|IAL-System - 1.1 ml||8500|
|Contour plastic face fillers||Price, rub|
|Restylane gel - 1.0 ml||from 15,000|
|Perlane gel - 1.0 ml||from 17000|
|Restylane Gel Lip Volume - 1.0 ml||from 18000|
3. Cream with hyaluronic acid: reviews, how to choose
Many consumers know: what an excellent moisturizing effect hyaluronic acid has, and therefore they are looking for this ingredient in the creams. More and more brands advertise hyaluronic acid as part of their creams, but if you read their composition on the label - it turns out that they are listed at the very bottom of the list. This means that the proportion of hyaluronic acid there is extremely small.
Recommended concentrations of hyaluronic acid -
- conventional skin care products 0.05-0.4%,
- highly moisturizing and anti-aging cosmetics - 0.5-1.5%.
Do not buy products with hyaluronic acid, where the percentage of its content is not specified! In addition, it must be stated whether the product itself contains hyaluronic acid, or its salt is sodium hyaluronate.
Recommended sizes of HA molecules in skin care products -
ideally, if the manufacturer indicates the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid molecules as part of its product. Some manufacturers simply write "low molecular weight" (without quantitative indicators), which is not credible. Serum should only be from low molecular weight HA with a molecular size of up to 130.000 Dalton.
In the funds in the form of a cream, the choice of the size of GA molecules will depend on what effects you are waiting for -
- If you are more interested in improving the elasticity of the skin, then in this case the size of the mass of the molecules of the HA should be from 50,000 to 130,000 Daltons.
- If a rapid clear improvement in the moisture content and appearance of only the upper layer of the skin, then the mass of HA molecules should be as large as possible, but not less than 1.000.000 Dalton. Why this is so - we described in detail at the beginning of the article. And by the way, such funds will be much cheaper than the first.
- There are agents that contain a combination of both low molecular weight and high molecular weight HA. Probably, this option means and would be preferable.
Focus on additional components -
it is better to refrain from creams, which include: flavors, alcohol, natural oil essences (they reduce the effect or destroy the molecules of hyaluronic acid). But vitamins C, E and B5, on the contrary, enhance its effect, and therefore it is very good if they are in the composition of the cream. It is very good if there are ceramides in the cream (unsaturated fatty acids), which also moisturize the epidermis very strongly and prevent the evaporation of moisture from the skin surface.
Is it possible to add a solution of hyaluronic acid from ampoules to an ordinary cream?
If you have found a great moisturizer that suits your skin, but does not contain hyaluronic acid - you can buy it in a pharmacy in the form of ampoules, and simply add it to your cream. In this case, hyaluronic acid will be with a large mass of molecules and will not penetrate the skin. But, as we have said: working on the surface of the skin, it forms a gel-like polymer film.
This protective film is long lasting on the skin; after application, it begins to absorb water from the air, which leads: firstly, to saturation of the surface layer of moisture with moisture, and secondly, to protection against evaporation of moisture from the surface of the skin. Those. As we can see, creams will work with a high molecular weight mass of hyaluronic acid and a low one to moisturize the skin. Just do it in different ways and at different depths.
The mechanism of action of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid is quite different. It penetrates into the dermis, absorbs water there (coming from the blood vessels), which leads to an increase in the moisture content in the dermal layer of the skin, and also affects fibroblasts, collagen, etc.
Hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate in a cream: which is better
Sometimes in the composition you can read that the cream does not contain hyaluronic acid, but sodium hyaluronate. This may not be clear, so it requires a little explanation. Chemically, sodium hyaluronate is a salt derived from hyaluronic acid. It has several advantages over hyaluronic acid itself, although both of these components have good water-holding properties.
The main difference of sodium hyaluronate is in its molecular size. In the process of creating sodium hyaluronate, its molecular weight decreases due to the removal of lipids and nucleic acids, which makes the molecule much smaller than that of hyaluronic acid. This means that when applied topically, sodium hyaluronate molecules more easily penetrate the skin.
What is possible and what is impossible to achieve with creams -
There is a lot of deception on the Internet. Whole offices with paid commentators leave praise every day for the products they promote, and at the same time criticize their competitors. A few helpful tips ...
1. Creams with GK will never be able to smooth wrinkles.
No cream with hyaluronic acid can cope with pronounced wrinkles, folds, sagging and other signs of skin aging, no matter how much the cream manufacturers promise. For example, the manufacturer "Gemene - hyaluronic acid DNC" promises that using its gel - wrinkles will be filled and even. Unfortunately, this is simply impossible!
Also, do not be fooled by promotional articles that promise wrinkle reduction and the rave reviews of paid commentators on various forums and blogs (in fact, 99% of reviews on Internet forums are a hidden advertisement). All that these creams can do is basically moisturize your skin and give it a more rested appearance, slightly reduce the depth of the smallest wrinkles by 15-30% (for example, around the eyes or on the upper lip).
If you constantly use quality products with low molecular weight HA, then you can expect an increase in the thickness and elasticity of the skin. But keep in mind that as soon as you stop using these products, you quickly roll back to the initial state of the skin.
2. Price matters -
Production of low molecular weight HA is a very expensive process. Effective quality products with high concentrations of low molecular weight HA a priori can not be sold at 500-1000 rubles. Usually their cost ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 rubles. If you want to buy a quality product - get ready that it will be expensive (although the serum with a 30 ml HA can be enough for 3-4 months of daily use).
3. What creams and serums with hyaluronic acid can be recommended -
The most optimal use of serum, because they are more effective. If you have dry skin, then use a cream with HA, or serum under the cream.
The best serums with hyaluronic acid -
- Skinceuticals® "Hydrating B5 gel" (USA) -
this serum contains 0.5% low molecular weight HA, vitamin B5, as well as a moisturizing complex of pyroglutamic acid, urea, trehalose, and polycarbonium-51. You can buy in the company's Russian online store company SkinCeuticals®. Cost (30 ml) - about 4700 rubles. It is intended more for the prevention of age-related changes.
- Skinceuticals® "H.A. Intensifier" (USA) -
this serum contains 1.5% hyaluronic acid, 2% dipotassium cittirizate, 10% proxylane. Designed for the correction of age-related skin changes. The cost of about 8 000 rubles (30 ml). You can buy in the company's Russian online store company SkinCeuticals®.
- Serum "Tete" (Switzerland) -
cost from 2200 rubles per pack with three bottles of 10 ml each. The manufacturer does not disclose the concentration of HA, but the products of this company have always been of high quality (for example, it was Tete that developed the so-called liposomal cosmetics).
Creams with hyaluronic acid -
As for creams with low molecular weight HA, in Russia they are sold very little. Only a few trademarks can be named as worthy of any kind of trust. First is TETE liposomal lifting cream®, in which the innovative liposomal mechanism of transfer of HA molecules into the skin is used. First, they are cosmetic products of the French company La Roche-Posay.®which are very widely represented in pharmacy chains.
Important: the most effective option will still be the use of non-creams, namely serum with HA. But note that immediately after the application and absorption of the serum - it is necessary to immediately put a good cream on top (ideally, if it comes with ceramides).
Hyaluronic acid: contraindications
Hyaluronic acid is ABSOLUTELY SAFE both when applied to the skin and when injected. It is safe even when taken orally, because just not absorbed in the intestines. Occasionally hyaluronic acid may cause allergic reactions. Special precautions include injections of hyaluronic acid during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
There is insufficient evidence and studies that prove the complete safety of hyaluronic acid during pregnancy. Also, doctors do not know: how it affects breast milk and an infant when feeding, so it is recommended not to risk and refrain from using it. We hope that our article on the topic: Solgar hyaluronic acid to buy reviews at the pharmacy - it turned out to be useful for you!
Author: portal editors