A scar is a skin formation that occurs as a result of tissue regeneration at the site of the wound surface. Scars are often formed after traumatic tissue damage, surgical incisions (for example, a scar after a caesarean section). They can also be caused by inflammatory skin diseases, such as scars after smallpox, chickenpox or acne.
When referring to scars, people often use a synonym, calling them scars. Scars consist mainly of fibrous connective tissue, which is the skeleton of most of the organs and tissues of our body. Fibrous connective tissue includes fibers such as collagen and elastin.
Types of scars -
Proper scar removal depends also on what type of scar you have. It is customary to distinguish the following five types of scars ...
- Flat, pale scars (pic. 1) -
This is the most common type of scar. They only slightly protrude above the surface of the skin, and also initially have a red or dark red color. During the usually two-year period, such scars gradually fade and flatten out even more.
- Hypertrophic scars (Fig.2-3) -
their peculiarity is that they are very strong above the skin level. They also tend to have intense red or purple color. As a rule, it is of this kind that there is a caesarean scar - photo 3.
- Keloid scars / scars (Fig.4) -
formed as a result of excessive formation of collagen at the wound site. The feature of these scars is that the scar tissue continues to grow far beyond the wound itself, even after the wound has healed.
- Contract scars (fig.5) -
are formed, as a rule, as a result of burns. These scars tighten and squeeze the skin, limiting its mobility.
- Atrophic scars (Fig.6) -
they look like dents on the surface of the skin. Most often, scars on the face after chickenpox or pimples look like this.
Scar formation -
Scar formation is a natural process of healing of the skin after it is damaged (Fig. 7). Initially, the wound surface becomes covered with crusts, and the traumatic defect itself begins to fill up under them with soft granulation tissue. Gradually, granulation tissue is replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue (collagen), which is produced by cells called fibroblasts.
Fibroblasts actively produce collagen at the site of skin damage for three to four months, which usually leads to a gradual elevation of the scar above the skin and the formation of a lumpy surface. In parallel with this, blood capillaries actively grow, as a result of which the scar becomes red.
Then, a certain amount of over-formed collagen begins to break down, and the number of newly formed capillaries decreases. This leads to the fact that the scar gradually becomes smooth, soft and begins to fade. In most cases, the scars remain forever, and only in very rare cases, they disappear without a trace during the first two years after the injury.
How to prevent the appearance of scars -
It is impossible to completely prevent the formation of scars, but there are a number of things that can help your scar to become less noticeable and heal better ...
- If a wound is formed on the skin, immediately clean it of dirt and disinfect.
- If the wound is deep - use a pressure bandage, because this can help smooth out the scarring.
- Always protect the wound from water (do not wet the wound with water).
- Use a remedy for scars and scars to reduce redness and better healing. This may be a special ointment for scars and scars, or a silicone-based gel / patch.
- Gently massage the scar area when the crusts disappear after healing. Massage helps to prevent the accumulation of massive layers of collagen and their transformation into scars.
Important points -
- Do not cover the wound tightly, the access of oxygen allows you to quickly form crusts that accelerate the healing of the wounded area.
- In no case do not pick and do not tear the crust, because this will definitely lead to the formation of a significant scar.
- For antiseptic treatment of wounds, use any antiseptics other than hydrogen peroxide, because It can damage the surrounding healthy skin tissue.
- Do not put on the wounds and fresh scars vitamin E, because it breaks the proper healing rate.
- Do not pick or squeeze acne - this leads to the formation of atrophic scars on the face.
How to get rid of scars -
Depending on the type of scar, as well as on its duration, there are several treatments that can help make them less noticeable and improve their appearance. Keep in mind: it is to improve, because it is hardly possible to completely get rid of scars without a trace.
In this article we will focus on -
- cream for scars and scars (for example, Dermatiks, Kelo-Kot ...),
- laser removal of scars
- surgical removal of scars.
Also used for the treatment of scars -
- silicone patches (for example, Meform),
- medium or deep chemical peeling techniques,
- dermabrasion technique (skin polishing),
- cosmetic camouflage (make-up or tattoo on scars).
Read about these methods on the links in the relevant articles. A combination of several treatments is often used.
The best external remedy for scars and scars -
In the pharmacy, there is always a choice of external remedies for scars that help to make them less visible on the skin. The most common and well-known means include -
→ gel "Dermatiks" (Fig. 8),
→ gel "Kelo-Kot" (Fig.9),
→ gel "Zeraderm ultra",
→ gel "Fermencol",
→ gel "Kontraktubex",
→ gel "Mederma",
→ Mepiform or Dermatiks silicone patches (Figure 10).
How to get rid of scars with these tools -
The basis of all these funds is either silicone or sodium heparin. Silicone perfectly moisturizes and protects the skin, making it more elastic. Heparin sodium also perfectly keeps the skin hydrated. Note that all these tools are designed not only to help the proper formation of scars, but also to prevent the formation of keloid scars.
As for the opinion of doctors, there is no unanimous opinion on which means are better. Moreover, some doctors generally recommend not to touch the fresh scars and not to smear them with anything, but to give the body its own to cope with the healing process. And only if there is a tendency to the formation of keloids - is it necessary to use Dermatiks or Kelo-Kot as a preventive measure.
Scar cream: efficacy reviews
We have carefully studied the reviews of doctors, as well as reviews of patients using or not applying such external means. As a result, we did not find a direct relationship between the use of these tools and the formation of an imperceptible or almost imperceptible scar.
It seems that everything is really, strictly individually ... Many patients smeared scars and still they had terrible scars, but there are also those who did nothing at all, while the scars themselves gradually disappeared or became completely invisible. We have not found any published objective scientific evidence that any of these tools really works. All published clinical studies are based only on subjective assessment methods: surveys and inspections.
Yes, there are scientific studies showing that silicone (which is included in most of the means of scars) - helps to form a thinner and more elastic scar, but that's all. In this case, no quantitative indicators in these studies are not given: for example, what percentage of patients had a significant improvement in relation to the total number of patients involved in the study. All this causes some to doubt the high effectiveness of this group of drugs.
For example, massage a forming scar with a conventional moisturizer or petroleum jelly - also improves elasticity and better distributes the forming new collagen in the scar tissue. But it is difficult to understand how much silicone or heparin sodium is better than regular cream or vaseline, and whether it is worth paying for them so expensive.
Therefore, a clear answer to the question: what kind of ointment from scars or cream from scars and scars is better - no. Using these creams and gels will not guarantee that the scar will be less noticeable. However, it can be said that the use of these tools still reduces the risk of the formation of coarse scars.
Remedies for scars and scars: price
The packaging of each of these gels is 15 grams, and only Fermencol is produced in tubes of 30 grams.
- Dermatix (Dermatiks) - costs in the range of 2500-3000 rubles.,
- Gel Kelo-cat - price from 1300 to 1700 rubles.,
- Zeraderm Ultra - price from 3000 to 4000 rubles. (rich composition, which additionally includes coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K).
- Fermenkol from the Russian manufacturer - costs about 1500 rubles.,
- Kontraktubeks - costs only 600 rubles, but this drug has the worst reviews among doctors and patients.
- Nuobisong cream for scars - reviews indicate that this Chinese cream, which is sold illegally and only through the Internet - in general has neither the composition indicated on the package nor the detailed instructions in Russian. Therefore, despite its low cost of about 300 rubles - we do not recommend its use.
Laser scar removal: prices, photo before and after
Laser scar removal or laser skin resurfacing (this is the same) is an effective method of dealing with scars. The lasers used for this procedure produce high-frequency light pulses, the thermal energy of which evaporates the thin layers of the skin, layer by layer.
Laser scar removal is especially effective for treating postoperative scars that no longer grow or thicken. For example, a caesarean scar can be perfectly removed with a laser. Also, laser polishing works well with shallow atrophic scars after acne (acne).
Laser scar removal: before and after pictures
How does laser removal of scars -
Initially, the scar is cleared and the area of treatment is marked with a marker. Often the treated area is anesthetized with a local anesthetic. Some patients are offered sedatives or sedatives for relaxation. If the scar is removed on the face, the patient is wearing special glasses to protect the eyes.
During the procedure, the patient may feel tingling, burning. After the procedure, slight bleeding may be observed. When the procedure for removing scars with a laser ends - a special ointment for scars after operations is applied to the treated area, after which the wound is covered with a bandage.
24 hours after the procedure, patients are advised to start cleaning the treated area 4-5 times a day and apply a special ointment or petroleum jelly to prevent the formation of crusts. Healing after scar removal with a laser usually takes 10-21 days, depending on the size of the scar and its location.
Laser scar removal: video
Laser scar removal: prices
the cost varies depending on the area where the scar is located, as well as its size. Therefore, on average, to remove scars with a laser - the cost per 1 cm2 will be from 1,500 to 2,500 rubles.
Possible side effects after the procedure -
- pain, burning (disappears within 12-72 hours),
- swelling (passes within 48 hours),
- bleeding (passes within 12 hours),
- crusting, peeling (within 5-7 days),
- re-formation of the scar.
After complete healing, the patient should -
- apply oil to the treated area for 2-3 months,
- avoid sunlight on this area
- constantly make sure that young skin is constantly moisturized.
Surgical treatment of scars -
Surgical treatment of scars involves the excision of scar tissue and the creation of a cosmetic suture. There are various methods of stitching fabrics (for example, intracutaneous), which allow us to achieve the fact that later the suture will be almost imperceptible. For cosmetic seams very thin suture material is used.
How to get rid of scars at home -
First of all, it is to start using external silicone-based products in the form of gels, which we described above. Of course, no tool will help to completely get rid of the scar, but it can help make it less noticeable. In order to get rid of scars at home - it is necessary to treat the scar several times every day for 4 months, so tune in for a long-term treatment.
General recommendations to improve the appearance of scars -
- Avoid sunlight on the scar, because it slows down the healing process and makes the scars more visible in color. If the frame is in the open area of the sun for the skin, then each time before going out in the sun, use sun protection (at least 30 SPF).
- Every day, massage the scarred area (at least 2 times a day for 3-5 minutes) to avoid excessive formation of fibrous tissue that makes up the scars. You can do massage without all, or using oil, or gel with silicone (brand see above).
- Constantly peel off the surface layer of the skin, consisting of dead skin cells of the epidermis, with the help of means for superficial chemical peeling. It also reduces the risk of gross scar formation.
Treatment of scars with folk remedies -
1. Aloe vera
Aloe Vera is a natural, herbal remedy for scars and scars, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial action. It works as an emollient that helps the healing process and promotes the growth of healthy cells, improving skin texture.
How to apply -
First, remove the outer layer of the Aloe Vera leaf until a jellylike substance appears. After that, apply a gel scar, massaging the scar in circular motions until Aloe Vera is completely absorbed. After 30 minutes, rinse off the remnants of aloe vera with water. Apply aloe vera gel twice a day.
Important: Do not apply Aloe Vera on open wounds.
2. Coconut oil
Coconut oil is another excellent natural ingredient that helps get rid of scars. Coconut oil contains lauric, caprylic and capric acids, which stimulate collagen synthesis and promote healing of damaged skin.
How to apply -
Heat in the hands of natural unrefined coconut oil to a liquid state. After that, apply on the scar, massaging it with oil for 5-10 minutes. After that, leave the oil on the skin for another 1 hour so that the skin is completely absorbed. For best results, repeat the procedure 2-4 times a day.
Lemon contains alpha-hydroxy acids, which have the effect of chemical peeling. As a result, lemon juice removes dead skin cells, promotes the growth of new cells, improves skin elasticity.
How to apply -
apply lemon juice on the scar (if the skin is sensitive, you can dilute the juice with water or oil). Wait 10 minutes and rinse with warm water. Repeat the procedure once a day. Keep in mind that lemon can discolor the skin and makes it very sensitive to sunlight. Therefore, be sure to use sunscreen or hide this area from the sun to avoid hyperpigmentation.
4. Apple Cider Vinegar
As well as citric - malic acid refers to alpha-hydroxy acids, which are used for chemical peeling of the skin. Therefore, it will also contribute to the exfoliation and removal of dead skin cells.
How to apply -
mix equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and water. Apply this solution to the scar with a cotton swab. Leave on for 5 minutes and then rinse with water. Repeat once a day.
Important: keep in mind that peeling products based on lemon or apple cider vinegar will be much less effective than professional chemical peeling procedures performed in cosmetic clinics, as well as special professional preparations for surface peeling at home.
5. Tea tree oil
Tea tree oil reduces scars and blemishes on the skin due to its anti-inflammatory and healing properties. Just keep in mind that in no case should tea tree oil be used undiluted.
The first use case is
add 4 drops of tea tree oil in 2 tablespoons of water. Moisten the scar with this solution 2-3 times a day.
The second use case is
Mix 2-3 drops of tea tree oil with 1 teaspoon of almond oil. Apply this mixture on the scar and leave for 30 minutes, then rinse with water. Use once a day.
Author: editors of the portal.